Blood pressure is an important indicator that reflects the state of the blood vessel system and health in general. Most often, speaking of pressure, it means arterial, when blood moves from the heart. It is measured in millimeters of mercury and is determined by the amount of blood that pumps the heart per unit time, and the resistance of blood vessels. AD is not the same in different vessels and depends on their size. The bigger the vessel, the higher it is. The highest it is in the aorta, and the closer it is to the heart, the higher the value. For the norm take pressure in the artery of the shoulder, this is due to the convenience for its measurement.
Everyone knows that the value of AD is written in two digits in the form of a fraction, but not everyone understands how to decipher this expression. This means that it is measured at the moment when cardiac contraction and blood outflow occurs (the blood pressure reaches the maximum level), and when the heart is relaxed and passively filled with blood (the blood pressure is minimal). The first – systolic, or upper, the second – diastolic, or lower blood pressure.
Upper blood pressure
Systolic refers to the pressure experienced by the vascular walls at the time of systole (contraction of the heart muscle). The blood pressure is recorded as a fraction, and the number on top indicates the systolic level, so it is called the upper. What determines its value? Most often from the following factors:
- Force of contraction of the heart muscle;
- The tone of the blood vessels, and hence their resistance;
- The number of cardiac contractions per unit time.
The ideal upper blood pressure is 120 mm Hg. Pillar. The normal range is from 110 to 120. If it is more than 120, but less than 140, talk about prehypotension. If the blood pressure is 140 mm Hg or higher, it is considered elevated. The diagnosis of “arterial hypertension” is set in the event that for a long time there is a persistent excess of the norm. Single cases of growth of blood pressure by hypertension are not.
The blood pressure can constantly change during the day. This is due to physical activity and psycho-emotional stress.
Causes of increased upper blood pressure
Systolic pressure can rise in healthy people. This happens for the following reasons:
- With stress;
- During exercise;
- After drinking alcohol;
- When eating salty foods, strong tea, coffee.
The pathological reasons for the increase include the following:
- Kidney pathologies;
- Disorders in the adrenal and thyroid gland;
- Atherosclerosis of blood vessels;
- Disturbances in the operation of the aortic valve.
Symptoms of increased systolic blood pressure
If the upper pressure is increased, any manifestations may be absent, but with prolonged and persistent hypertension, the following symptoms appear:
- Headache, usually in the nape of the neck;
- Labored breathing;
- Flickering flies before the eyes.
Causes of decreased systolic blood pressure
It may temporarily decrease in the following cases:
- With fatigue;
- Climate change and weather;
- In the first trimester of pregnancy;
- At physical exertion.
This condition is not a deviation from the norm and quickly normalizes without any intervention.
Treatment is required if lowering blood pressure is a symptom of diseases such as:
- Irregularities in the work of the heart valve;
- Bradycardia (decreased heart rate);
- Brain trauma.
Symptoms of low systolic blood pressure
If the upper pressure is lowered the person experiences:
- Memory impairment.
Lower blood pressure
It shows the strength of the blood pressure on the vascular walls at the time of diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle). This pressure is called diastolic and it is minimal. It depends on the tone of the arteries, their elasticity, heart rate and total blood volume. The normal lower pressure is 70-80 mmHg.
Causes of increased diastolic blood pressure
Single cases of its increase are not a pathology, as well as temporary growth in physical activity, emotional stress, changes in weather conditions, etc. It is possible to speak about hypertension only with a steady increase in it. More details about the reasons for increasing the lower pressure and its treatment can be found here.
The increase can lead to:
- Kidney disease;
- High renal pressure;
- Violations of the adrenal and thyroid gland (increased production of hormones);
- Diseases of the spine.
Symptoms of increased lower blood pressure
With an increase in diastolic pressure, the following complaints may appear:
- chest pain;
- labored breathing.
With prolonged elevation, visual impairment, cerebral circulation, risk of stroke and heart attack may occur.
Causes of low diastolic blood pressure
This symptom is typical for the following pathologies:
- Violations of the aorta;
- Allergic reactions and others.
Diastolic pressure may fall in women during pregnancy. This can cause hypoxia (oxygen starvation), which can be dangerous for the unborn child.
Symptoms of low diastolic blood pressure
If the lower pressure is lowered, symptoms such as:
What should be the difference between upper and lower pressure
We know what pressure is optimal. This is 120/80 mm of mercury. Hence, the normal difference between the lower and upper blood pressure is 40 units. It is called pulse pressure. If this difference increases to 65 or more, the likelihood of developing cardiovascular complications increases significantly.
A large rupture is most often observed in the elderly, since it is for their age that an isolated increase in upper blood pressure is characteristic. With age, the likelihood of developing isolated systolic hypertension only increases, and especially sharply after 60 years.
The level of pulse pressure is affected by the extensibility of the aorta and nearby large arteries. The aorta has a high extensibility, which decreases with age due to the natural wear of the tissues. Elastic fibers are replaced by collagen, which are more rigid and less elastic. In addition, with age, many people on the walls of the arteries are deposited cholesterol, lipids and calcium salts. Thus, the more salts of calcium and collagen, the worse the aorta stretches. The worse the artery wall is stretched, the greater the difference between the lower and upper pressure.
The high value of pulse pressure is the main risk factor for the development of strokes and other cardiovascular complications in the elderly.
It is very important to maintain blood pressure at the optimal mark – 120/80 mm Hg. Column (people with low blood pressure – 115/75). It should be remembered that prehypertension (from 120/80 to 139/89) is a risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Each millimeter of mercury above 120/80 increases this probability by 1-2 percent, especially in people after 40 years.
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